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Acidity of Milk; Importance, Effects and Determination Methods

Milk is a food with a slightly acidic character. This acidic character is mainly due to the proteins (casein, albumin and globulins), phosphates, organic acids such as citric acid and carbon dioxide gas found in the natural structure of milk. This acidity is called “the natural acidity of milk.” Since the natural acidity of milk depends on the components naturally present in its structure, any…

Sensory Characteristics of Milk; Color, Taste and Appearance

Sensory characteristics are properties of milk that the human senses can feel. Although instrumental analyses are needed to precisely determine milk’s properties, sensory analysis also provides important indications for the expert. The sensory characteristics of milk are color, taste and odor, consistency and structure. In this article, the properties of milk in its natural state and the situations in which these properties deviate from naturalness…

Water Activity in Foods; Definition, Importance and Effects (Detailed Explanation)

By definition, water activity in foods is the ratio of the vapor pressure of the water in the food to the vapor pressure of pure water at the same temperature and its symbol is aw. Theoretically, the water activity value is between 0 and 1; however, water activity in foods varies between 0.1 and 0.99. Water activity has no units because it expresses a ratio.…

Spices and Flavors; Spice Types, Natural and Artificial Flavors

Spices and flavors are ingredients used to enhance the taste of food, enrich it or suppress bad taste. Taste can be defined as the feeling created by all the characteristics of food that can be perceived with the tongue and nose after it is taken into the mouth. While defining food, it was mentioned that taste is a need for human beings (see Food and…

Colorant Food Additives; Definition, Types and Effects on Health

Color is one of the most important parameters affecting the consumer’s purchase of food. Both the preservation of the existing color and the coloring of the food in a way that does not exist but increases the attractiveness of the food are very common applications in the food industry. Detailed information on the protection of color is given under the title of preservative food additives…

Sweetener Food Additives; Overview, Types and Health Effects

Sweetness is one of the 6 basic tastes1. Mankind has felt the need to sweeten some of the foods they consume for a very long time. It has long been used to sweeten foods that are very sweet and high in carbohydrates, such as honey and molasses, to sweeten their food. The discovery of granulated sugar by Indians crystallizing sugar from sugar cane in the…

Preservative Food Additives; Overview, Types and Purposes of Usage

It is necessary to consider the preservatives of food from two different perspectives. The first is to protect the food from microbial activities; prevent microbial spoilage and prevent the food from becoming microbially unsuitable for health. The second is that to prevent food loses its freshness over time due to its nature, apart from microorganism activities; it should be considered as delaying or preventing the…

Food Additives; Definition, Classification and E Codes

Food additives are added to food during the preparation of food to achieve different purposes such as correcting, improving, protecting, suppressing the structural, sensory and nutritional properties of food or extending the shelf life of the food. Food additives are substances that are not consumed as food alone but are not harmful to health when consumed. In addition, not directly added to the food, but…

Lipids; Classification, Fatty Acids, Fats and Oils

Classification of Lipids Although the term “fat” is used for all fat and similar molecules in the colloquial language, fats and oils are molecules in the group called “lipids” in food chemistry. However, there is no standard view on classifying lipids in the scientific community. In general, lipids are divided into three classes. 1) Simple Lipids a) Fats and Oils; All of the fats and…