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All Vitamins; Functions, Daily Needs and Rich Foods

Vitamin A (Retinol)

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin and can be stored in the liver. Vitamin A-rich foods are fish, liver, butter, eggs, milk and dairy products. About 50 of the 600 carotenes found in plant foods are in vitamin A form.

These carotenoids are called provitamin A and are converted to vitamin A by taking 1 mole of water into their structures with the effect of enzymes in the liver and small intestine. In terms of equivalence, 6-12 mg of carotene equals 1 mg of vitamin A.

Functions of vitamin A in the body

1. Provides the eye’s adaptation to the dark and prevents night blindness.

2. Has vital importance for growth, bone development, reproduction, immune system, and health of epithelial tissues.

3. It is an antioxidant. It delays aging and reduces the risk of cancer.

4. Increases resistance to diseases and protects against cold and flu. It provides protection against infection and air pollution in the mouth, nose, throat and lungs.

Need to know about vitamin A
Need to know about vitamin A

Vitamin A deficiency

When the amount of retinol in the blood drops below 20 µg/dL, the stores are insufficient; When it falls below ten µg/dL, it is accepted that there is no stored vitamin A.

Since vitamin A can be stored in the liver, deficiency symptoms appear within 1-2 years in adults.

Its deficiency can be seen in patients with malabsorption, celiac patients, individuals with impaired gall bladder, a strict diet, cirrhosis, chronic pancreatitis and individuals with inflammatory bowel disease.

Diseases in Vitamin A deficiency;

1. Night blindness (appears after about seven months in its deficiency) and xerophthalmia (appears within 3-5 months)

2. Dryness and keratinization of the skin,

3. Increase in respiratory tract infections,

4. Increase in kidney epithelial disorder and kidney stone formation,

5. Infertility,

6. Disturbances in growth and development may occur.

When vitamin A is taken in excess by the body;

Generally, taking more than ten times the daily recommended intake of vitamin A has a toxic effect. The consumption of 15 mg per day for adults and 6 mg per day for infants and children may cause poisoning symptoms.

If taken in excess;

1. Enlargement of the liver and spleen,

2. Hair loss,

3. Pause in growth,

4. Bone and muscle pain,

5. Scaling and itching on the skin,

6. Nausea and vomiting,

7. Double vision,

8. Situations such as miscarriage and birth disorders may be encountered.

It has been previously stated that 6-12 mg of carotenes are equivalent to 1 mg of vitamin A in equivalence.

The food environment can reduce the amount of vitamin A it contains. The table below shows the conditions against which vitamin A is unstable. After the food is cooked, up to 40% loss occurs in vitamin A.

Similarly, vitamin A is unstable to light and air. Therefore, it is extremely important to preserve the food in a dark and air-tight environment to keep vitamin A.

Vitamin D (Calciferol)

Vitamin D is a common name given to about ten different compounds with an antirachitic effect. These compounds take terms such as D1, D2, D3… The most importants are vitamins D2 (Ergocalciferol) and D3 (Cholecalciferol).

Vitamin D3 can be produced in the body, while vitamin D2 is produced artificially in the laboratory. Vitamin D2 is usually added to foods to enrich them or used as a food supplement.

Vitamin D can be produced within the body of every individual who receives sufficient sunlight and the body can provide an adequate amount to metabolism. However, individuals who cannot get enough sunlight cannot produce enough vitamin D in their bodies. In this respect, sunbathing for 15-30 minutes is extremely important for vitamin D production.

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin and can be stored in the liver. Vitamin D-rich foods are fish oil, egg yolk, butter, cultivated mushrooms, milk and dairy products.

Functions of vitamin D in the body

1. Provides the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the digestive system,

2. Regulates the calcium level in the blood,

3. Provides parathyroid inhibition,

4. Provides gene regulation,

5. Helps cell regeneration.

Need to know about vitamin D
Need to know about vitamin D

Vitamin D deficiency

Vitamin D deficiency can be seen in individuals who cannot receive direct sunlight, workers who work at night, individuals with malabsorption, chronic kidney and liver disease, fast-growing children and individuals from countries with low sun exposure.

If there is not enough vitamin D in the body, calcium and phosphorus taken with the diet cannot be adequately absorbed in the digestive system. Therefore, the calcium level in the blood decreases. To complete the calcium deficiency in the blood, the calcium in the bones is dissolved and given to the blood.

As a result, bone development disorders and bone deformation occur in children. This disease seen in children is called “rickets”. In adults, this situation causes “osteomalacia” disease, which causes softening and curvature of the bones. Osteomalacia is a common disease in women who give birth frequently, malnourished individuals and do not get enough sunlight.

When vitamin D is taken too much;

Exposure to excessive sunlight increases the risk of developing skin cancer, but it is reported that excessive vitamin D production in the body does not pose a toxic hazard.

However, if the amount of 10 times the recommended daily intake is taken continuously;

1. Hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia; high levels of calcium and phosphorus in the blood,

2. Hypertension,

3. Developmental delay,

4. Nausea, weakness, diarrhea, excess urine,

5. Weight loss,

6. Kidney stone formation,

7. Nausea and vomiting,

8. Fatigue and headaches can be encountered.

After cooking food, losses of up to 40% occur in vitamin D. Similarly, vitamin D is unstable to light and air/oxygen. Therefore, preserving food in a dark and air-tight environment is very important to keep vitamin D.

Vitamin E (Tocopherol)

Vitamin E is the common name for eight different tocopherols. Nutritionally, α, β, γ and δ – tocopherols are important.

Vitamin E is one of the fat-soluble vitamins; It can be stored in the liver and adipose tissue. It is heat resistant. However, its resistance to heat decreases in the presence of oxygen.

The most important feature of vitamin E is its strong antioxidant effect. Vegetable oils, butter and eggs are foods rich in vitamin E. Vitamin E deficiency is very rare.

Functions of vitamin E in the body

1. Prevents the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the structure of the cell wall and thus ensures the integrity of the intracellular membrane,

2. Helps the nerve and muscle tissue to work regularly,

3. With its strong antioxidant properties, it helps protect the body against aging and cancer,

4. Protects blood cells against hemolysis,

5. It has functions in the formation of sperm and ovum cells.

Need to know about vitamin E
Need to know about vitamin E

Vitamin E deficiency

A level of vitamin E in the blood below 0.5 mg/dl is defined as vitamin E deficiency. Vitamin E deficiency is rare, except in premature infants and individuals with fat absorption disorders.

Diseases in Vitamin E deficiency;

1. Incompatibility between the nervous system and muscle movements,

2. Reflex loss,

3. Reduction in muscle mass; weakening,

4. Reproductive system problems can be seen.

When vitamin E is taken in excess to the body;

Until now, no side effects have been reported in the body due to excessive intake of vitamin E.

After the food is cooked, losses of up to 55% can occur in vitamin E. Vitamin E is resistant to heat under normal conditions. Still, the presence of oxygen in the environment considerably reduces the resistance of vitamin E to heat.

However, vitamin E is unstable to light and air. Therefore, keeping the food away from light and air will ensure the preservation of vitamin E content as well as many vitamins.

Vitamin K

Vitamin K is the common name of 5 different molecules called K1 (phylloquinone), K2 (menaquinone), K3 (menadione), K4, and K5. K1 and K2 are molecules found in nature, while the other three molecules are synthetically produced in the laboratory.

Vitamin K1 is in the composition of foods. Vitamin K2 is produced by bacteria living in the intestines. While the body obtains half of its vitamin K needs from foods, the other half is obtained from vitamin K produced by the bacteria living in the intestines and absorbed from the colon.

Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin stored in the liver and some other tissues. Deficiency is rare.

Functions of vitamin K in the body

1. Has an essential function in blood coagulation. It is involved in the synthesis of prothrombin.

2. Transfers electrons in respiration reactions,

3. Effective on bone health.

Need to know about vitamin K
Need to know about vitamin K

Vitamin K deficiency

The daily requirement of vitamin K is one µg/kg of body weight. For example, the daily need for vitamin K for an individual weighing 70 kg is 70 µg. Vitamin K deficiency can be seen in individuals with impaired fat absorption and individuals who use high amounts of antibiotics.

In its deficiency, symptoms usually appear after 1-2 weeks. In the case of surgery and injury, an increase in bleeding may occur.

Diseases in Vitamin K deficiency;

1. Problems in blood coagulation,

2. Abnormalities can be seen in the intestinal walls.

When vitamin K is taken too much in the body;

In newborn babies, prolonged clotting time, hemolytic anemia, vomiting and jaundice can be seen in high vitamin K intake.

Vitamin K is highly resistant to heat treatment and air. However, like other vitamins, it is sensitive to light.

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin and its most important sources are rosehips, peppers, parsley and citrus fruits. The highest rate is found in rosehips (approximately 600 mg/100 g).

Vitamin C is very unstable to ambient conditions. Over 90% of vitamin C loss can occur with cooking. Similarly, the cutting process applied to food causes a significant loss of vitamin C.

Consuming the source of vitamin C without cooking and cutting food is very important for vitamin C intake. Rosehip is not consumed raw but in rosehip tea juice or marmalade. Even if a very large amount of vitamin C is lost during the processes, there is enough vitamin C in rosehip juice to meet 50-100% of the daily need.

Likewise, although potatoes, spinach and liver contain high levels of vitamin C, it is pointless to consider these foods as sources of vitamin C since the cooking process loses almost all of the vitamin C they contain. Consuming chili peppers by chopping them in a salad causes a lower vitamin C intake than consuming them without chopping them.

It is recommended to consume fresh foods such as citrus fruits and peppers without cutting and chopping. Vitamin C is also highly sensitive to light, oxygen and metals.

In addition to being a natural ingredient in foods, vitamin C is added to processed foods as a food additive in the food industry. The most important reason for using vitamin C as a food additive is to protect the color.

It prevents the color of the product to which it is added and ensures that it remains in stable color. It is usually included in the food label in ascorbic acid with the code E300 and as a color stabilizer.

Functions of vitamin C in the body

1. Takes part in the synthesis of collagen, which is connective tissue,

2. Helps to prevent coronary heart diseases by preventing the oxidation of intravascular cells and LDL cholesterol,

3. Protects the body against infections and bacterial toxins,

4. Effective in protecting gum health,

5. It is an important antioxidant; it reduces the risk of cancer.

Need to know about vitamin C
Need to know about vitamin C

Vitamin C deficiency

The recommended daily vitamin C intake for a healthy adult individual is 60 – 100 mg. If the individual smokes, it is recommended to take 10 mg more vitamin C for each branch of cigarette smoking. On the other hand, conditions such as stress, drug and chemical use and illness are among the factors that increase the need for vitamin C.

Diseases in Vitamin C deficiency;

1. Scurvy can be seen,

2. The durability of capillaries decreases; bleeding in the gums and under the skin,

3. The healing of wounds is delayed,

4. Connective tissue production is impaired; especially the ends of the bones become unstable,

5. Blood clotting time increases,

6. Teeth may be wobbly.

When vitamin C is taken too much in the body;

Excess vitamin C is excreted through urine. However, excessive vitamin C intake can cause diseases such as diarrhea and kidney stone formation. On the other hand, it has been reported that excessive intake reduces the absorption of vitamin B12.

It has been mentioned before that vitamin C is highly unstable to ambient conditions. Vitamin C suffers significant losses after cooking, cutting and canning. However, it is extremely unstable to air and light. The presence of metal ions in the environment causes the loss of vitamin C by accelerating the oxidation of vitamin C.

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

Another popular name for vitamin B1 is “morale vitamin“. Since it is directly related to carbohydrate metabolism, the body’s need for thiamine increases in high carbohydrate consumption and high energy expenditure cases.

In general, 0.5 mg of vitamin B1 consumption is recommended for every 1000 calories consumed. In its deficiency, symptoms such as loss of appetite, depression, increased sensitivity and mental fatigue are seen first.

Vitamin B1 is a water-soluble vitamin found in almost all animal and plant foods, albeit in low amounts. The richest source of vitamin B1 is sourdough bread. However, whole wheat bread made from bran and unseeded wheat flour is also a good source of thiamine.

Functions of vitamin B1 in the body

1. Thiamine is a cofactor in the structure of 3 enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism (pyruvate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and transketolase). Therefore, it has a direct effect on carbohydrate metabolism.

2. Supports the regular functioning of the nervous system,

3. Necessary for cardiovascular health,

4. By facilitating digestion helps the digestive system work regularly,

5. Increases learning ability.

Need to know about vitamin B1
Need to know about vitamin B1

Vitamin B1 deficiency

The recommended daily intake for a healthy individual is approximately 1.0 mg. However, as stated before, the need increases in high carbohydrate consumption and increased energy expenditure cases.

The thiamine requirement of an individual whose daily energy consumption is 3000 calories is approximately 1.5 mg/day.

The need for thiamine increases in pregnant women, lactating women and individuals who have experienced accidents and trauma. Vitamin B1 deficiency is generally encountered in Far East countries.

Diseases in Vitamin B1 deficiency;

1. Loss of appetite, depression and mental fatigue,

2. Indigestion, severe constipation, irregular bowel movements,

3. Beriberi, which is a nervous system disease,

4. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome,

5. Conditions such as heart failure, respiratory failure and vibrations can be seen.

When vitamin B1 is taken in excess to the body;

No toxic or side effects have been reported when vitamin B1 is taken in 500 mg daily.

Vitamin B1 is very sensitive to environmental conditions. Thiamine gives significant losses against cooking and heat treatment. However, it is resistant to air and oxygen.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Vitamin B2 is included in the structure of enzymes that have oxidation-reduction functions in the reactions occurring in the cell. It is an important vitamin in the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats, especially proteins. Riboflavin is involved in the structure of approximately 50 different enzymes in mammals.

The need for vitamin B2 increases depending on daily energy consumption. In general, the recommended daily intake for a healthy individual is 1.2 mg/day. According to energy needs, it is recommended to take approximately 0.6 mg of vitamin B2 for every 1000 calories consumed.

Vitamin B2 is a water-soluble vitamin and its most important sources are sourdough bread, beef liver, eggs and cultivated mushrooms. Its deficiency is mainly seen in individuals from economically backward countries.

Functions of vitamin B2 in the body

1. Riboflavin participates in the structure of FMN (flavin mononucleotide) and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) enzymes in the body. Therefore, it is extremely important in the healthy execution of energy metabolism.

2. Makes vitamin B6 active,

3. Takes part in the production of erythrocytes,

4. Takes part in the production of glycogen.

Need to know about vitamin B2
Need to know about vitamin B2

Vitamin B2 deficiency

The recommended daily intake for a healthy individual is approximately 1.2 mg. However, as stated before, the need increases in cases such as high energy expenditure. The riboflavin requirement of an individual with a daily energy consumption of 3000 calories is approximately 1.8 mg/day.

The need for riboflavin is also increased in pregnant, lactating and individuals of growing age. As a result of insufficient vitamin B2 intake, symptoms usually begin within three months.

Diseases in Vitamin B2 deficiency;

1. Sores on the skin, genitals, nose, mouth, lips and tongue,

2. Enlargement of the eye vessels, difficulty in seeing and burning in the eyes,

3. Disorders in the nervous system can be observed.

When vitamin B2 is taken too much in the body;

No toxic effects have been reported after taking high doses of vitamin B2.

Vitamin B2 is more resistant to environmental conditions than other vitamins. However, as a result of cooking, up to 75% of the amount of vitamin B2 in the food can be lost. Also, like other vitamins, it is sensitive to light.

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Niacin is the common name for nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. It is found in the structure of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) enzymes in the body. Therefore, it has a vital function in energy production reactions.

While niacin can be found in free form in foods, tryptophan, an essential amino acid, can be converted to niacin in the liver. Approximately 60 mg of tryptophan is equivalent to 1 mg of niacin.

In this respect, consuming foods rich in vitamin B3 and foods with high protein quality is critical in terms of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. Vitamin B3 deficiency emerges as a “pellagra” disease in societies that consume corn as a staple food and feed a low-quality protein source.

Vitamin B3 is a water-soluble vitamin and is highly resistant to environmental conditions compared to other vitamins. The richest sources of vitamin B3 are sourdough bread, liver, and mushrooms. The need for niacin increases as daily energy consumption increases. In general, 6.6 mg of niacin per 1000 calories burned is recommended.

Functions of vitamin B3 in the body

1. Plays a key role by taking part in the structure of enzymes carrying electrons in energy production reactions.

2. Necessary for acid production in the stomach,

3. Supports skin health,

4. Important for the health of the nervous system.

Need to know about vitamin B3
Need to know about vitamin B3

Vitamin B3 deficiency

The recommended daily intake of vitamin B3 for a healthy adult individual is 13 – 18 mg. As the amount of energy consumed by the body increases, the need for niacin also increases. However, it increases the need for niacin in conditions such as pregnancy and breastfeeding.

Diseases in Vitamin B3 deficiency;

1. The skin becomes sensitive to light; burning and redness can be seen in the skin. In advanced cases, pellagra disease occurs; nervous system and digestive system disorders occur, wounds and lesions occur on the skin.

2. Redness of the tongue and dryness of the mouth,

3. Diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal pain,

4. In advanced cases, nervous disorders such as anxiety, insomnia and hallucinations can be seen.

When vitamin B3 is taken too much in the body;

When more than 3 grams of vitamin B3 is taken daily, side effects may occur in the body. When the amount of consumption is reduced, the side effects also disappear.

Known side effects;

1. Hot flush and skin flushing,

2. Disorders in liver functions,

3. Enlargement of the veins.

It can be said that vitamin B3 is the most resistant vitamin to environmental conditions. Possible loss occurs by cutting and washing the food.

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)

Pantothenic acid is involved in the coenzyme A (CoA) structure, which is engaged in essential reactions such as the Krebs circle, fat and protein metabolism and cholesterol production.

Vitamin B5 deficiency is very rare. If food is not taken for more than three months, it can cause symptoms of mild paralysis in the hands and feet.

Generally, vitamin B5 deficiency can be seen in individuals who are not well-fed and individuals with digestive system disorders.

Vitamin B5 is a water-soluble vitamin found in almost all animal and plant foods in greater or lesser proportion. The best sources of pantothenic acid are sourdough bread, beef and liver, eggs and cultivated mushrooms.

Functions of vitamin B5 in the body

1. Has essential roles in carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism.

2. Acts as a carrier in cell metabolism.

Need to know about vitamin B5
Need to know about vitamin B5

Vitamin B5 deficiency

The recommended daily intake of vitamin B5 for a healthy adult individual is approximately 6 mg.

Diseases in Vitamin B5 deficiency;

1. Weakness, nausea, vomiting,

2. Muscle cramps, nerve damage,

3. Burning feet syndrome can be seen.

When vitamin B5 is taken too much;

No toxic or side effects have been reported due to the regular intensive use of pantothenic acid.

Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 is a common name given to pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine. These compounds are found in foods combined with phosphate. The most useful for metabolism is pyridoxal phosphate. The deficiency of this vitamin is rare.

Vitamin B6 is involved in protein metabolism in the body. It is also found with protein in foods. Therefore, as the amount of protein in the food increases, the amount of vitamin B6 it contains also increases.

Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin and its wealthiest sources are meat and offal, eggs, cereal products, legumes and sourdough bread.

Functions of vitamin B6 in the body

1. They are involved in the structure of enzymes involved in the decarboxylation and deamination reactions of amino acids,

2. Involved in the synthesis of hemoglobin,

3. Takes part in some reactions in fat and carbohydrate metabolism,

4. Supports the regular functioning of the immune system.

Need to know about vitamin B6
Need to know about vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 deficiency

The recommended daily intake of vitamin B6 for a healthy adult individual is 1.0 – 1.6 mg. The need for vitamin B6 in the body also increases in a protein-based diet and cases of stress.

Diseases in Vitamin B6 deficiency;

1. Anemia and convulsions,

2. Growth retardation,

3. Digestive system disorder and kidney stone formation,

4. Restlessness and neurological disorders can be seen.

When vitamin B6 is taken too much in the body;

When more than 500 mg of vitamin B6 is taken daily, side effects may occur in the body.

Known side effects;

1. Sensory disorders,

2. Disorders in the nervous system.

Vitamin B6 is relatively unstable to light and heat treatment. It can lose between 40% – 80% in canned food production; it can lose between 40% and 60% in the freeze-preservation process.

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

Vitamin B12 is the only vitamin that contains the element cobalt and its other name is cobalamin. It is produced only by microorganisms and is only found in animal foods.

Since it is not found in plant foods, deficiency can be seen in individuals who have followed a strict vegetarian diet for a long time.

Cobalamin is a water-soluble vitamin, and the richest food sources are meat, offal, shellfish such as mussels, oysters and eggs. Vitamin B12 is found in animal foods, bound to protein. Therefore, together with the consumption of animal protein, vitamin B12 intake is also provided.

Functions of vitamin B12 in the body

1. Responsible for the production of blood cells,

2. Participates in the structure of enzymes necessary for tissue growth,

3. Participates in the structure of some enzymes involved in protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism,

4. Takes part in folic acid metabolism.

Need to know about vitamin B12
Need to know about vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 deficiency

The recommended daily intake of vitamin B12 for a healthy adult is two µg. The need increases with pregnancy, growing age and infectious diseases. Cobalamin deficiency is usually due to absorption problems rather than nutrition.

The deficiency can be observed in a strict vegetarian diet after 1-2 years. The deficiency can be seen in the elderly, individuals who consume heavy alcohol and individuals who have undergone sleeve gastrectomy surgery.

Diseases in Vitamin B12 deficiency;

1. Weakness, shortness of breath, palpitations,

2. Anemia,

3. Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea,

4. Depression, loss of sensation in the arms and legs and numbness can be seen.

When vitamin B12 is taken too much in the body;

Even when 100 µg of vitamin B12 is taken daily, no toxic or side effects have been detected in the body.

Vitamin B12 is not resistant to light and oxygen and is highly resistant to heat treatment compared to other vitamins. As a result of boiling the liver at 100oC for 5 minutes, an 8% loss occurs in vitamin B12.

Vitamin H (Biotin)

Biotin is a sulfur-containing vitamin like vitamin B1. It is highly resistant to environmental conditions. It is present in almost all animal and plant foods to a greater or lesser extent. However, vitamin H is also produced by bacteria living in the intestines. Therefore, its deficiency is very rare.

Vitamin H is a water-soluble vitamin and its most important sources are liver, cultivated mushrooms, sourdough bread and eggs. However, consuming raw eggs prevents vitamin H intake.

Vitamin H is bound to a protein called avidin in eggs, which has an antagonistic effect against vitamin H. When eggs are cooked, avidin is denatured and its negative impact on vitamin H disappears.

Functions of vitamin H in the body

1. Acts as a coenzyme in carboxylation and trans-carboxylation reactions,

2. It is a growth factor for almost all living organisms.

Need to know about vitamin H
Need to know about vitamin H

Vitamin H deficiency

The recommended daily intake of vitamin H for a healthy adult individual is approximately 100 µg. Although it is found in most foods, bacteria are also produced in the intestines, making its deficiency very rare.

In extreme cases, such as consuming six raw eggs a day for a long time, biotin deficiency can be seen.

Diseases in Vitamin H deficiency;

1. Baldness and skin rash,

2. Depression and hallucination,

3. Muscle pain and dermatitis can be seen.

When vitamin H is taken in excess to the body;

Even when 10 mg of vitamin H is taken daily, no toxic or side effects have been detected in the body.

Folic acid (Folate)

The name folic acid is derived from the Latin word folium, meaning leaf. Although it was first detected in leafy vegetables, it is found in almost all animal and plant foods.

The richest sources of folate are; liver and other offal, eggs, lettuce, spinach, lentils and sourdough bread. Folic acid can be stored in the liver as 2 – 5 mg.

Folic acid is a very perishable vitamin and is lost at a rate of 50-95% during food processing and preparation. In this respect, eating lettuce without being chopped will be very useful in meeting the folic acid need.

Functions of folic acid in the body

1. Folate has a significant role in growth and development periods,

2. Necessary for blood cell production and cell proliferation,

3. Vital for the immune system; participates in the formation of antibodies,

4. It is in the structure of enzymes involved in DNA synthesis.

Need to know about folic acid
Need to know about folic acid

Folic acid deficiency

The recommended daily folic acid intake for a healthy adult is approximately 300 µg. Folic acid deficiency can be seen frequently in pregnant women, premature babies and the elderly. Individuals with gastrointestinal system disorders, malignant tumor patients and alcoholic individuals are in the risk group for folic acid deficiency.

Even if enough folic acid is taken into the diet, insufficient intake of vitamin C and vitamin B12 prevents the use of folic acid taken into the body. Therefore, in folic acid deficiency, adequate amounts of vitamins C and B12 should be taken. Folic acid deficiency shows signs of anemia within 1-2 weeks.

Diseases in Folic acid deficiency;

1. Anemia,

2. Glossitis and diarrhea can be seen.

When folic acid is taken too much in the body;

A high intake of folic acid can cause side effects.

The side effects are;

1. Insomnia and depression,

2. Problems in the gastrointestinal system,

3. Permanent kidney damage.

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All Minerals; Functions, Daily Needs and Rich Foods


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